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What is The Difference Between Rolling And Forging

What Is Rolling

Rolling is a method in which a metal blank passes through a gap (various shapes) of a pair of rotating rolls, and the cross-section of the material is reduced by the compression of the rolls and the length is increased. This is the most commonly used production method for producing steel and is mainly used for production profiles, plates, pipes.

Types of Rolling

According to the movement of the rolled piece, the rolling method can be divided into the following types: longitudinal rolling, cross rolling, and skew rolling.

Longitudinal rolling: Refers to the process of plastic deformation in which the metal passes through two rolls that rotate in opposite directions.

Cross rolling: The moving direction of the rolled piece after deformation is consistent with the direction of the rolling axis.

Skew rolling: The rolling piece moves in a spiral shape, and the rolling piece and the rolling axis are not at an angle.

Advantages of Rolling

The casting structure of the ingot can be destroyed by it. Besides, the grains of steel can be refined, and structural defects can be eliminated. As a result, the steel structure is densified and the mechanical properties are improved. This improvement is mainly reflected in the rolling direction so that the steel no longer has bubbles and cracks isotropically to a certain extent. The porosity formed in the casting process can also be welded under high temperature and high pressure.

Disadvantages of Rolling

After rolling, the non-metallic inclusions (mainly sulfides, oxides, and silicates) in the steel are pressed into a thin plate, which causes delamination (sandwich). Delamination will greatly reduce the tensile properties of the steel in the thickness direction, and when the weld shrinks, interlayer tearing may occur. The local strain caused by welding shrinkage usually reaches several times the yield point strain and is much larger than the strain caused by the load.

Residual stress is caused by uneven cooling. Residual stress is the internal self-balanced stress without external force. Each part of the hot-rolled steel has such residual stress. The larger the section size of ordinary steel, the greater the residual stress. Although the residual stress is self-balanced, it still has some influence on the performance of steel components under the action of external force. Such as deformation, stability, fatigue and other aspects may have adverse effects.

Poor control of thickness and side width of hot rolled steel products. We are familiar with thermal expansion and contraction. Even if the length and thickness reach the standard, hot rolling starts from the beginning, so there will be a certain negative difference after cooling. The wider the width of the negative difference, the thicker the thickness. Therefore, for large steel, the side width, thickness, length, angle, and the edge of the steel cannot be too precise.

What Is Forging

It refers to a processing method that uses a forging machine to apply pressure to a metal blank and make it plastically deformed, which can achieve a certain mechanical performance, a certain shape, and size. Through forging, it can eliminate defects such as loosening of the as-cast metal caused by the melting process and optimize the microstructure. At the same time, the mechanical properties of forgings are usually better than those of the same material due to the preservation of the complete metal flow lines. For the important parts of related machinery, these parts often use forgings under high load and severe working conditions, except for the available rolled plates, profiles, or welded parts.

Types of Forging

Custom forging service can be divided into free forging, die forging, and flashless die forging.

Free forging: Impact or pressure is used to deform the metal between the upper and lower iron rods (anvils) to obtain the required forgings. This forging is mainly divided into manual forging and mechanical forging.

Die forging: Die forging is divided into open die forging and closed die forging. The metal blank is pressed and deformed in a forging die with a certain shape to obtain forgings, which can be divided into a cold heading, roll forging, radial forging, and extrusion. ACE forging has a better forging process in closed molds. We can forge steel, aluminum, and copper components. 

Since there is no burr in burr-free die forging and burr-free up forging, the material utilization rate is high. Complex forgings can be completed through one or more processes. Because there is no flash, the area offorce applied to the forging is reduced, and the required load is also reduced. However, it should be noted that blank materials should not be completely restricted. For this reason, strictly control the volume of the blank, control the relative position of the forging die, and measure the forging to reduce the wear of the forging die.

Advantages of Forging
  • Improve the internal structure of the metal and improve the mechanical properties of the metal.
  • High labor productivity.
  • Wide application range. The quality of forgings is as small as less than 1kg, as large as hundreds of tons; it can be produced in a single piece, in small batches, and mass production.
  • The size and shape of the forgings are closed to the finished forging parts, which can greatly save metal materials and reduce the cutting processing man-hours.
Disadvantages of Forging
  • Easy to produce large grains or uneven grains
  • May appear cold and hard
  • Cracks, cracks, flash cracks, or parting surface cracks may appear
  • Irregular distribution of forging streamlines
  • Casting structure residue
  • The level of carbide segregation does not meet the requirements
  • Partial underfill

ACE Machinery is an ISO 9001 certified manufacturer for OEM casting and forging service, including China CNC machiningcustom die castingchina investment castingforging services, etc. Contact us for more custom casting services!



If you would like to have a question then get in touch today, we are ready to assist 24/7.
We welcome your cooperation and we will develop with you.
 Factory-direct Connectivity Solutions.
 High quality, Competitive Price.
 Custom-tailored solutions.
 Problem-solving approach.

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If you would like to have a question then get in touch today, we are ready to assist 24/7.
We welcome your cooperation and we will develop with you.

 Factory-direct Connectivity Solutions.
 High quality, Competitive Price.
 Custom-tailored solutions.
 Problem-solving approach.