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At its most basic level, forging is the process of forming and shaping metals through the use of hammering, pressing or rolling. The process begins with starting stock, usually, a cast ingot (or a “cogged” billet which has already been forged from a cast ingot), which is heated to its plastic deformation temperature, then upset or “kneaded” between dies to the desired shape and size.

Hot Die Vs. Cold Die Forging

Most metal forging operations are carried out hot, due to the need to produce large amounts of plastic deformation in the part, and the advantage of an increased ductility and reduced strength of the work material. Hot die forging also eliminates the problem of strain hardening the metal. 

In cases where it is desirable to create a favorable strain hardening of the part, cold die forging may be employed. Cold die forging manufacture while requiring higher forces, will also produce a greater surface finish and dimensional accuracy than hot die forging.

Hot Forging

Hot forging foundry requires the metal to be heated above its recrystallization temperature. This can mean heating metals up to 2,300 degrees Fahrenheit. The main benefit of hot forging is the decrease in energy required to form the metal properly. This is because excessive heat decreases yield strength and improves ductility. Hot die forged products also benefit from the elimination of chemical inconsistencies.

Cold Forging

Cold forging typically refers to forging a metal at room temperature, though any temperature below recrystallization is possible. Many metals, such as steel high in carbon, are simply too strong for cold forging. Despite this hindrance, cold forging does edge out its warmer equivalent when it comes to standards of dimensional control, product uniformity, surface finish, and contamination. Cold die forging encompasses numerous forging techniques, including bending, extruding, cold drawing, and cold heading. However, this increased versatility comes at a cost, because custom cold forging requires more powerful equipment and may call for the use of intermediate anneals.

Types of Forging Processes

There are several forging processes in the industry, including impression or closed die, cold forging, open die forging, and seamless rolled ring forging. Here we will discuss in detail the methods, application, and comparative benefits of the different forging processes.


Impression Die Forging

Impression Die Forging commonly referred to as closed-die forging, impression-die forging of steel, aluminum, titanium, and other alloys can produce an almost limitless variety of 3-D shapes that range in weight from mere ounces up to more than 25 tons. Impression die forgings are routinely produced on hydraulic presses, mechanical presses, and hammers, with capacities up to 50,000 tons, 20,000 tons, and 50,000 lbs.

As the name implies, two or more dies containing impressions of the part shape are brought together as forging stock undergoes plastic deformation. Because metal flow is restricted by the die contours, this process can yield more complex shapes and closer tolerances than open-die forging processes. Additional flexibility in forming both symmetrical and non- symmetrical shapes comes from various preforming operations (sometimes bending) before forging in finisher dies.

Cold Forging

Cold forging encompasses many processes bending, cold drawing, cold heading, coining, extrusion, punching, thread rolling, and more to yield a diverse range of part shapes. These include various shaft-like components, cup-shaped geometry’s, hollow parts with stems and shafts, all kinds of upset (headed) and bent configurations, as well as combinations.

Sometimes warm forging is selected over cold forging, especially for steels with higher carbon content, or the process annealing can be eliminated.

Often chosen for integral design features such as built-in flanges and bosses, China cold die forgings are frequently used in automotive steering and suspension parts, antilock-braking systems, hardware, defense components, and other applications where high strength, close tolerances, and volume production make them an economical choice.

Open Die Forging

Open-die forging is also known as smith forging. A hammer strikes and deforms a metal on a stationary anvil. In this type of forging, the metal is never completely confined in the dies—allowing it to flow except for the areas where it is in contact with the dies. It is the operator’s responsibility to orient and position the metal to achieve the desired final shape. Flat dies are used, with some having specially shaped surfaces for specialized operations. Open-die forging is suitable for simple and large parts, as well as customized metal forging components.

Advantages of open-die forging:
● Better fatigue resistance and strength
● Reduces chance of error and/or holes
● Improves microstructure
● Continuous grain flow
● Finer grain size

Rolled Ring Forging

Roll forging consists of two cylindrical or semi-cylindrical horizontal rolls that deform a round or flat bar stock. This works to reduce its thickness and increase its length. This heated bar is inserted and passed between the two rolls—each containing one or more shaped grooves—and is progressively shaped as it is rolled through the machine. This process continues until the desired shape and size are achieved.

Roll forging is the process of increasing rods or wires in length. The manufacturer places heated metal bars between two cylindrical rolls, which rotate and apply progressive pressure to shape the metal. Benefits of roll forging include the elimination of flashing and a superior grain structure.

Advantages of automatic roll forging:
● Produces little to no material waste
● Creates a favorable grain structure in the metal
● Reduces the cross-sectional area of the metal
● Produces taper ends

Cold Chamber Die Casting

Due to the slow operation, the operation of the cold chamber die casting machine is a bit slower than that of the hot chamber machine. Cold chamber machines are used for high melting point casting alloys such as aluminum, brass, and magnesium.

The main difference between cold chamber machines and hot chamber machines is that the injection plunger and cylinder are not immersed in the molten metal. Because the plunger and cylinder assembly are not immersed in the molten metal, they are less eroded.

Pour the molten metal into the “cold chamber” through the port or pouring trough by hand or automatic ladle. The hydraulic plunger that is advanced seals the port, forcing the metal into the locked mold under high pressure.

Aluminum and magnesium alloys have injection pressures ranging from 3,000 to 10,000 psi and copper-based alloys from 6,000 to 15,000 psi.

For applications that are too corrosive for the immersion design of hot chamber die castings, the cold chamber process may be a good choice. In cold chamber machines, more molten metal is poured into the chamber than needed to fill the mold cavity. This helps maintain enough pressure to fill the cavity with cast alloy firmly.

What Does Ace Best Offer

ACE BEST is the premier forging solutions manufacturer and supplier in China, one of our greatest strengths is the diversity of custom forging solutions we can offer. The types of customized forgings we produce can range from a fraction of a pound up to 350 lbs. Our capabilities in materials include multiple grades and types of metals, depending on the end-use. Carbon, alloy, and stainless steels, as well as aluminum, brass, and titanium, which can all be forged. We also offer a range of additional services, allowing us to stay competitive and directly supply finished products to our customers.

Why Choose Us

We are a comprehensive forging solutions manufacturer and supplier, committed to excellence in everything we do.  Besides, we are ISO 9001 and AS 9100 certified and ITAR compliant. Our engineering team utilizes various computer modeling techniques and the latest technological capabilities, as well as extensive physical testing. We offer our partners a dependable link in their supply chain by constantly focusing on quality, short lead times, and competitive pricing.  Each forging, no matter how complex, is also backed by our ongoing customer service and expert engineering.


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