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Difference Between Hot Chamber And Cold Chamber Die Casting

Brief Introduction of Die Casting

In the most basic terms, die casting is a process that involves the use of high pressure to force molten metal into a cavity to produce casting metal parts. The die-casting cavity is made of two hardened steel molds and is specially processed to meet the size of different metal parts. For best results, most die castings are made of non-ferrous metals, that is, metals that do not contain iron.

Hot Chamber Die Casting

Hot chamber die casting uses the same process as mentioned earlier-molten metal is forced through the preform mold cavity under pressure. The main feature of hot chamber die casting is that the metal is heated inside the casting machine rather than in a separate machine or furnace.

The hot chamber casting machine is also called the gooseneck machine, which is characterized by a built-in furnace in which the metal is heated to reach a molten state. They use hydraulic pistons to drive molten metal out of the furnace and into the mold. Hot chamber die casting is a relatively fast process, with a typical cycle lasting only 15 to 20 minutes. Although not suitable for high melting point metals, it is ideal for zinc alloys, tin alloys, and lead alloys.

Hot Chamber Die Casting Machine

The injection mechanism of the hot cell machine is immersed in the molten metal. The furnace is connected to the machine through a metal feeding system called a gooseneck.

The mold is closed, the piston rises, and the port is opened to fill the cylinder with molten metal.

Next, the plunger seals the port and pushes the molten metal through the gooseneck and nozzle into the mold cavity, where it is held under pressure until it solidifies.

The mold opens and the core (if any) retracts. The casting remains only in one mold half, the top mold side. Then, the plunger returns, allowing the remaining molten metal to flow back through the nozzle and gooseneck.

The thimble pushes the casting out of the top mold. When the plunger exposes the filling hole, molten metal flows through the inlet to refill the gooseneck.

Alloys Used in Hot Chamber Die Casting

The hot chamber die-casting machine has a high degree of automation, less material loss, and high production efficiency. However, due to the heat resistance of mechanical parts, it can only be used to produce zinc alloy, magnesium alloy, and other low melting point castings.

The pressure chamber of the hot pressure chamber die casting machine is immersed in the liquid metal that is in the heat preservation melting crucible. The injection port is not directly connected to the machine base but is mounted on the crucible. The advantages of the die-casting machine are the simple production process, high efficiency, low metal consumption, and stable process. 

The pressure chamber and the injection punch are immersed in the liquid metal for a long time, which will affect the service life and easily increase the iron content in the alloy. At present, the hot press chamber die casting machine is mainly used for die casting low melting point alloy castings (such as zinc alloy), but also for die casting small aluminum die casting and magnesium alloy die castings. Due to the high melting point of aluminum alloy die castings are widely used today.

Cold Chamber Die Casting

For metals with high melting points, cold chamber die casting is the preferred manufacturing process, and most of the top part manufacturers in the industry use this process. Typically, this will include metal alloys of aluminum, brass, and copper. Cold chamber machinery requires additional equipment (usually an external furnace and a ladle for pouring metal into the machine) for precision die casting. However, this allows the method to use materials that may be stronger and have general industrial applications.

The molten metal must be poured directly into the box through the ladle system or manually. After the molten metal is loaded to a sufficient volume.

The high-pressure hydraulic plunger will be injected into the mold. The pressure requirements of cold chamber castings are usually higher than those of hot chamber die castings.

Cold chamber die casting can also take as little as a few seconds to solidify the mold, although other simple designs also only take a few minutes. The cold chamber die-casting chamber usually contains multiple cavities, so it can be copied or produced on the same mold to cast different machine parts at the same time.

Cold Chamber Die Casting Machine

In the cold chamber die casting process, more molten material than the material required for filling the crucible is poured from the crucible into the injection sleeve. In the injection sleeve, the hydraulic plunger pushes the metal into the die. The excess material is used to force the additional metal into the cavity to compensate for the shrinkage that occurs during solidification. An injection pressure of 10,000 psi or more than 70,000 KPa can be obtained from this machine.

The operation sequence of the cold chamber die casting process.

Close the mold and pour molten metal into the cold chamber shot blasting sleeve.

The plunger pushes the molten metal into the mold cavity, holding it under pressure in the cavity until it solidifies.

The mold opens and the plunger advances to ensure that the casting remains in the ejector mold. The core (if any) is retracted.

The ejector pin pushes the casting out of the mold half of the ejector pin, and the plunger returns to its original position.

Alloys Used in Cold Chamber Die Casting

The cold chamber die casting machine pours the molten metal liquid into the injection chamber (barrel), and then uses the injection piston (hammer) to push the metal liquid into the mold to cool and solidify under a certain pressure, and finally obtain the metal die casting. The cold chamber die casting machine is suitable for die casting of various non-ferrous and ferrous metals. The production operation is few and simple, the production efficiency is high, and it is easy to realize automation.

Our products have a wide range of applications and powerful advantages. ACE Machinery is a professional die casting manufacturer. To learn more about the benefits of using ACE die casting parts, please contact us immediately.

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If you would like to have a question then get in touch today, we are ready to assist 24/7.
We welcome your cooperation and we will develop with you.

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 High quality, Competitive Price.
 Custom-tailored solutions.
 Problem-solving approach.