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Advantages And Disadvantages of Hot Forging And Cold Forging

What Is Hot Forging

The hot forging manufacturing process is carried out at extremely high temperatures (the maximum temperature of steel is 1150°C, the maximum temperature of aluminum alloy is 360 to 520°C, and the maximum temperature of copper alloy is 700 to 800°C). To avoid strain hardening of the metal during deformation, this temperature is necessary. Stamping is the most common hot forging manufacturing process in which the material is squeezed between the tool and die surface in a press.

Advantages of Hot Forging

The high temperature during hot forging allows the maximum material deformation and access to complex 3D geometries. Hot forgings have enhanced ductility, which makes them desirable for many configurations. Besides, because customized forging parts can be produced, hot forging is more flexible than cold forging.

The forging parts’ surface can be polished, coated, or painted according to the specific needs of customers. Hot forging materials are distributed all over the world, which has a positive impact on their final prices.

Disadvantages of Hot Forging

The properties of hot-forged metals are obtained by subsequent heat treatment in which the material has been quenched to 1000°C and then restored to 500°C. This requires additional costs and can be avoided if cold forging is used (except in some cases, softening, annealing or relaxation).

Compared with cold forgings, poor dimensional tolerances are another possible disadvantage of hot forgings. The cooling process should be carried out under special conditions, otherwise, there is a risk of warping. 

Hot Forging Application

Hot forging technology makes full use of the advantages of forging. It is a new type of special processing technology, which is mostly used in the automobile gear-shaped industries.

What Is Cold Forging

The cold forging manufacturing process is carried out at room temperature. The workpieces are squeezed between the two molds until they assume their shape. To deliver finished products, components can be assembled at any time. The technology includes rolling, stretching, pressing, rotating, extrusion and tapping.

Advantages of Cold Forging

Manufacturers may prefer cold forging to hot forging. Because cold-forged parts require little or no finishing. Since all bars are annealed before forging, no secondary heat treatment is required before machining.

Another significant advantage is that material can be saved by approaching the final shape. The initial weight of the workpiece is equal to the final weight of the cold-forged part. Cold forged parts have good dimensional accuracy and excellent surface quality.

The combination of economic advantages, high productivity, and long tool life are enough to convince many manufacturers that cold forging is their best choice.

Disadvantages of Cold Forging

Depending on the manufacturer’s requirements, cold forging parts may have an adverse effect. For example, only large quantities of simple shapes can be formed. Compared with stamping, the achievable deformation level and forming grade are more restricted. Therefore, if customers are looking for specific customized components, cold forging will not be the best choice.

The second major disadvantage is the poor ductility of cold-forged metal, which makes it unsuitable for certain configurations. Besides, since the grain structure imparts strength to the material, residual stress may occur.

It is important to mention that, for example, cold forging extrusion also requires heat treatment to eliminate possible cracks, stream hardening, or rotten.

For the above reasons, cold forging cannot be used on every steel grade, especially for steels with low ductility or sensitivity to strain hardening. For example, low-alloy steel with a carbon content higher than 0.05% is not suitable for cold forging.

Cold Forging Application

Cold forging is mainly applied in auto parts industries. Cold forgings can not only improve the dimensional accuracy of auto parts but also promote the development of the automotive industry, especially the development of the car industry.

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If you would like to have a question then get in touch today, we are ready to assist 24/7.
We welcome your cooperation and we will develop with you.

 Factory-direct Connectivity Solutions.
 High quality, Competitive Price.
 Custom-tailored solutions.
 Problem-solving approach.